The latest round of leadership changes at the IMF and the World Bank has generated increasingly intense criticism of the tacit Western hold on governance of these institutions. While this dynamic is indicative of global power adjustments, it also signals a paradigm shift in thought about issues and methodology of development and growth. John Maynard Keynes famously noted the influence economists exert on leaders as: “Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influence, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.” Perhaps it is time, especially in the field of development, to question the traditional monopoly of economists, and to effectively include scientists, anthropologists, and others to provide collaborative thought leadership.
The Forum of this issue of the Journal brings together leading policy makers, business professionals, and academics to evaluate the changing landscape of international development. New forms of assistance and greater connectivity among development stakeholders have reduced relevance of the traditional role of multilateral or bilateral agents of foreign aid and pillar organizations of the Washington Consensus. These bodies must adapt to an ever-changing world while being constrained by laws and bureaucratic processes. There is also a need to balance the perennial temptation of using official development assistance to promote national agenda with the interests of recipients. To deal with these and similar challenges effectively, the future lies in building networks of hybrid partnerships among governments, individuals, and other stakeholders in development.
It is never easy to divest political motivations from economic undertakings. Beyond the articles in the Forum, Andrew Natsios describes China’s difficulty in applying its international policy principle of non-intervention while investing in Sudan, and Shashi Tharoor provides an assessment of India’s political and economic activities in Latin America. In a special two-part series on the euro zone crisis, Kathleen McNamara explains how the crisis transformed the European Central Bank from an independent body to a political entity, while Minxin Pei describes how different political economies have made China reluctant to assist the euro zone.
The Journal continues to enjoy prominence in shaping policy debates and analyses of international affairs. As USAID prepares to hold its inaugural Frontiers in Development Forum in June 2012, we hope that issues raised in this volume will contribute to debates on challenges to development at the Forum and beyond.
Finally, we have continued to facilitate access to this publication through fully uploading archives on the website and developing more regular features online. We hope that the readers find the analyses presented in the Journal engaging and conducive to forward-looking discussions.
–Sikander Kiani and Michael Brannagan, May 2012
Forum: Rethinking Global Philanthropy
The best hope for the world’s poor lies in the ability of private aid givers to transform the current system of foreign aid, and to develop partnerships with the public sector, to advance common good.
- Embracing Enlightened Capitalism by Rajiv Shah| Read More
- Global Philanthropy and Beyond: Reinventing Foreign Aid by Carol Adelman | Buy
- Citizenship: The Evolution of ‘Corporate Philanthropy’ by Bob Diamond | Read More
- Joe Public: The Most Important Partner in International Development by Elizabeth Gore & Kent Ford | Buy
- Global Institutions and Partnerships: The Future of International Development? A Conversation with Thomas Pogge and Carol Lancaster | Read
Politics & Diplomacy
Presidential Power and the Internationalization of Domestic Policy
The upcoming American presidential election will overlap with a changing political schema. The United States has begun to witness an “internationalization” of its domestic policy. How the next administration adapts to this paradigm shift will have profound implications upon the future of U.S. prominence on the world’s stage.
- China in Sudan: The Challenge of Non-Interference in a Failed State by Andrew S. Natsios | Read More
China has encountered increasing difficulty maintaining its foreign policy directive of ‘non-interference’ in Sudan, as complex internal conflicts lend an inescapably political dimension to the superpower’s economic activities within the developing African country.
Examining the increasing interconnectedness of India and Latin America’s economic and diplomatic interests, a more robust tie between the two seems likely to emerge. Nevertheless, political and trade-related reform needs to take place before this partnership can reach fruition.
Conflict & Security
Securing the Olympic City
by Christopher Gaffney | Read More
In anticipation of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Olympics, the implementation of Police Pacification Units (UPP) in select favelas of Rio de Janeiro has transformed the city’s security dynamics. Is this security effort bringing benefits for some at the expense of others?
A number of countries run programs aimed at rehabilitating and reintegrating captured members of terrorist organizations. Yet recidivism of “rehabilitated” terrorists has called into question the effectiveness of these initiatives. In a quickly changing landscape of security threats, counterterrorism and counterinsurgency expert Bruce Hoffman discusses U.S. security policy in combating non-state actors across the world.
Culture & Society
Some groups within Nepal have advocated for a federal system of governance based on ethnic divisions. The authors argue that ethnic federalism is not a suitable solution for the country. Instead, they recommend a model of federalism based on inclusiveness and cooperation that would guarantee the mutually beneficial coexistence of Nepalis.
Law & Ethics
The Piracy Prosecution Paradox Political and Procedural Problems with Enforcing Order on the High Seas
Nations release pirates upon capture in order to avoid the increasingly stultifying hazards of legal bureaucracy and liability. Perhaps a more direct approach to combating the threats posed by these criminals would solve the piracy prosecution paradox once and for all.
The process of post-genocide transitional justice begins to come to a close in Rwanda. Vital operational lessons can be learned from the international blunders and local triumphs of the past two decades to create a more rapid, meaningful, and reconciliatory global response system.
Strange Bedfellows The Convergence of Sovereignty-Limiting Doctrines in Counterterrorist and Human Rights Discourse
A fragile ideological coalition has emerged with members of both the human rights and hard security communities advocating for more robust sovereignty-limiting doctrines. Perhaps it is best to simply embrace the organized hypocrisy that surrounds this case of strange bedfellows.
The International Olympic Committee has struggled to address the dual problems of illegal drug use among elite athletes and gambling. It has now turned to policing mechanisms to solve these challenges—criminalizing doping and focusing on the supply chain rather the end user.
Business & Economics
During the euro zone crisis of 2008-2009, the European Central Bank was held responsible for maintaining economic stability throughout the EU, without necessary support from political institutions. Several policy reforms are needed within the EU and the European Commission itself to prepare Europe for internal and external economic shocks in the future.
Political divisions within Europe and domestic considerations within China have prevented China from providing substantial financial aid to Europe during its ongoing debt crisis, and are likely to prohibit it from doing so in the foreseeable future.
Science & Technology
While use of mobile phones has been increasing in developing countries, the capabilities of using this technology to its full potential have lagged. If fully developed, such capabilities would strengthen the potential for profiting from mobile networks and for coordinating wealth-generating activities in developing countries.
- Missing Links: Crime-Prevention, IT, and the Case for Trilateral Collaboration by Jeffrey Avina | Buy
Public-private partnerships on crime prevention have not truly affected sustained global change. Championing academia as the operational panacea, a proposed four-step program targeting IT firms and other viable partners seeks to streamline corporate social responsibility-related endeavors.
A review of The Arab Awakening: America and the Transformation of the Middle East by Kenneth M. Pollack and others.
A review of Youth and Post-Conflict Reconstruction by Stephanie Schwartz.
A review of The Post-American World by Farid Zakaria.
A Look Back
Artificial Intelligence Reform Social Amnesia and the Intelligence Community
Examining the organizational and methodological restructurings of the last few decades, a twenty-eight year veteran of the Central Intelligence Agency and National Intelligence Council explains to those calling for intelligence reform why they might be suffering from a case of intelligence déjà vu.
My Time on the Line Examining the Afghan–Pakistan Border as a Factor in Counterinsurgency
A Foreign Service Officer looks back on the lessons learned from his time posted on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border area between 2004 and 2009. Continued international assistance will be necessary to sustain the border-area’s fragile ecosystem as troop levels are reduced.
View from the Ground
Fighting a Pandemic: The World’s Effort to Control Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
by Alex Bozzette | Read
Through conversations with practitioners in the field and travels across three continents, the author studies various efforts and challenges to developing and executing a cure for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).
Kazakhstan’s New Capital Its Importance and Implications
by Dena Sholk | Read
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan’s administration relocated the capital city from Almaty to newly built Astana. The author recalls her personal experiences in both of these cities, and warns that, despite expansion and investment, Astana’s growth may be too much, too soon.